Motorcycle Crash Causation Study (MCCS) Along Malaysian Expressways


  • Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan
  • Nora Sheda Mohd Zulkiffli
  • Hawa Mohamed Jamil


Motorcycle, crash causation, mixed effect logistic regression


Expressways are well known for its high fatality risk for motorcycles. Despite the various risk factors being identified in previous findings, we have yet to address the causality of these motorcycle crashes, specifically along expressways. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine the most common cause and contributing factors of motorcycle crash along Malaysian expressways. This study uses motorcycle crash data from 2016 - 2018 were obtained from the Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA). It was found that the three highest factors of motorcycle fatal crash causality are loss of control, poor visibility (no lighting) and incompetence (poor driving skills). The mixed-effects logistic regression (MELR) indicates that motorcyclists are four times safer riding on the emergency lane than on other lanes along the expressway section. Motorcyclists are approximately two times more likely to be involved in a fatal-multiple vehicle crash than a fatal single-vehicle crash and they tend to be involved in fatal crashes during low light conditions twice as compared to daytime. The MELR model also indicates that different types of expressway governed by different concessionaire have at least 16 - 18% variation effects towards motorcycle fatal outcome, which may need further study. It is recommended that motorcycles are allowed to utilize the emergency lanes as their travel path along the expressway as it is proven statistically safer and low probability to be involved in a fatal outcome.




How to Cite

Abdul Manan, M. M., Mohd Zulkiffli, N. S., & Mohamed Jamil, H. (2020). Motorcycle Crash Causation Study (MCCS) Along Malaysian Expressways. International Journal of Road Safety, 1(1), 26–34. Retrieved from



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